Artificial Intelligence – Informational Technology
First of all, in the scopes of this paper it is important to rely on the artificial intelligence notion. It is usually applied for defining the intelligence of machines and to the branch of computer technologies, which is used for its creation.
Artificial Intelligence is also known as informational technology. In order to outline the main characteristic of the IT introduced to the company’s activity, it is important to give its brief definition and outline the general characteristics of that issue. Informational technologies (IT) include wide range of sciences and fields of human activity, which are related to the technologies of data collecting and treatment, and also it concerns to creating and developing of new data with the help of the computer technologies.
In the process of transferring to the form of informative society, which is the form of the social organization implying development, distribution and diffusion of the information as the important issue for the political, economic, cultural activity and development, it is important to apply the latest technological achievements for the information treatment and exchange.
The core purpose of the informative society is getting the competitive advantage in the scope of international business, while applying the IT in a productive and creative manner.
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Nowadays, the IT is widely associated with the computer technologies, because it uses computer for data processing, saving, transformation, protection, exchanging and obtaining (Oxford English Dictionary, 1989).
In the scope of this research, the brief analysis of the IT is made. The company’s activity such as scope, cost, time and quality management are considered, while using the triple constraint system: scope, cost and time goal.
It is possible to outline the following potential benefits of the IT system development and practical implementation to the activity of the enterprises and companies:
- Reduction of the costs – IT allows reduction of costs on the human resource – all information collecting and treatment may be carried out with the help of computers. Also the customized software is individually developed for the companies and that, in turn, allows saving time and costs on additional training of the personnel, concerning the new software application and usage, and, more than that, only important and useful functions, concerning the certain enterprise are included into the system that allows reduction of the costs on general (not needed) options. Also, the Customized Software allows full ownership of the software, contrary tothe ownership of the license for its usage (as in case of pre-written software). That issue provides the owner with an opportunity to control all the costs, concerning its improvement (and the possibility to decide whether this improvement is needed or not).
- The competitive advantage for the company – the customer-developed software allows its owner to keep the competitive advantage over other companies, who may have less effective database of the clients, customer care system, quality inspection system or personnel motivation system etc. In other words, in the current business world the winner is that company, which is equipped with the new technologies of clients’ attracting, serving, maintenance and support.
- It increases the flexibility of the company’ activity – the customer-developed IT allows the informational system to meet all requirements dictated by the company’s activity change because its developers include all specification of the company’s activity and organizational process.
- It increases the company’s value – because the customer-developed IT allows monitoring and control of all actions carried out by the personnel and all units, which are already sold; the marketing strategy effectiveness etc. It is possible to occupy the leading positions on the market, while being effective manufacturer of the goods/services capturing and controlling over actual sales are additional competitive advantage of IT system improvement (Marketing through technology official web site, 2009)
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The scopes of IT implementation involve the information, concerning all the activities, carried out by the particular company such as human resource activities, the number of manufactured units, time, required to produce the particular goods, the available quantity, the planning for the nearest future, the accounting data, the client base, the suppliers base etc.
Each department of the company is provided with the access to the limited quantity of information the human resource centre has the access to the employees base, but is not provided with an information about the current orders; every employee is provided with log in and password to their personal page, which outlines current activities and orders to be accomplished. It is very convenient because it allows the management of the company to monitor the activities of the subordinates and not to explain every time what one is supposed to do in some period of time; everyone is provided with the clear instructions via electronic sources.
The costs of such IT system implementation are relatively high, especially in case of customer-developed system. But they would be compensated in the nearest future with the quality and quantity of accomplished orders, the costs for human sources would be reduced and effectiveness of the company’s management would also give additional revenues to its owners.
In majority cases, the system development life cycle looks in the following manner: the IT system planning, its analysis, design, practical implementation and maintenance (Elliott,2004).
The object-oriented programming allows obtaining interactions of data fields and methods applied for its treatment in order to collect and structure the data needed for the achievement of the specified goal (Sutherland, 1963)
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The Unified Modeling Language, applied for the IT system development is considered to be a universally applied modeling language in the field of software development. UML is widely applied in the business processes modeling, system projecting, and for the organizational structures representation (Fowler, 1995).
In majority of cases, IT system carries out information analysis and design, while applying the tools of the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM).
While completing the IT system for the particular company, all wishes and propositions of the company employees should be taken in consideration. And the participatory design cooperative design should be applied. That allows creating the best and suitable informational system for the particular company and, in addition, in such case, its interface is attractive and easy to operate for the majority of employees (Eckerson, 2006).
In the scopes of this section it is important to pay additional attention to the informational system (IS) notion and to define it. This term is applied in the interactions between people, technology processing, data treatment etc. It is very important to stress that IS is used not only for the communication technologies or for information treatment, it is also used for the business and management processes outlining (Kroenke, 2008).
It is possible to consider the IS as the combination of human activities and informational technologies, available for the data processing and for the decision making process improvement (O’Brien, 2003)
The IS notion is deeply interrelated with the computer systems and business processes. In the first case the IS includes the information technology component, so the computer system may be considered as the additional tool of the IS. While discussing the notion in the light of business process, the IS is a part of its correct functioning: it improves all the processes and helps to carry out the control over it (Alter, 2005).
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Generally, the IS is a part of the work system which integrates human work with the work of automatic devices and machines in order to produce and distribute some specific product. The main role of the IS in the whole work system is treatment of the information, concerning supply chain, manufacturing process, distribution and maintenance of the product. The general requirements to the IS are the following: providing easy access to the information, its security and keeping it in the correct order (Beynon, 2009).
Currently the importance of IT implementation into the company activity is widely discussed and practically confirmed. It is the key success factor for the organization in all its departments. It is useful in the human resource centre, procurement department, sales department, accounting department, marketing department, foreign economical activity department and other functional units of each enterprise, company or firm. The informational technologies allow collecting and saving of the information, according to the given algorithms with the help of the personal computer. It allows saving the large-scale size information on the machine-readable medium. And more than that, it allows exchanging of the particular information through all parts of our planet during the limited time period.
That is why introduction of the informational systems via informational technologies into the company’s activity, improves quality of its work. Moreover, it is required by the nowadays business world where time is money and the competition is won by those companies which may offer its services or products at the proper time and in the proper manner convenient and easy to access for the customer or business partner. The internal aspect of IT implementation into the business activity allows effective control over the company’s activity, easy correction of the deviations and monitoring of the results
The Business Intelligence
The Business Intelligence (BI) is relatively new term, which was introduced by the Hans Peter Luhn in 1958 for the first time. The author has considered the BI in the following way: “it is the ability to apprehend the interrelationships of presented facts in such a way as to guide action towards a desired goal” (Luhn, 1958). This notion has been changed since that time due to the computer technologies progress and in 1980-s it involved the computer and assisted models which were to help in decision making process by executing some calculations according to the criterions like “if…” and “than”. Thus, the elementary decision making models were offered for the manager. Such programs as DSS, OLAP, data warehouse and Executive Information Systems are the first developed programs in business intelligence area.
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Later, the BI system was interpreted as all possible methods, concepts, tools and possibilities of the business process improving with the help of the fact based support systems (Power, 2007). Nowadays the BI is the computer based and operated system of the problem definition, business information collecting, treatment and decision making assistance. For example, the sales revenue calculation based on the available on the web-sources information concerning the previous and current times and also experts’ business forecasts; general trends in the area etc. The main functions of the BI system are the following: online analytical processing which is collecting of the data needed for the decision making, carrying out the economical analysis of this information, benchmarking or borrowing the experience of another organizations, which operate in the same field (competitors), business performance management, selecting several possible variants for the business and, finally, making the predictive analysis of these decisions (Dresner, 2007).