Global Climate Change
To begin with, the climate is usual and expected weather conditions, which are applied to exact location at the particular time. For example, it is a well-known fact that if a person intends to visit New York City in January, this person should take a coat. Furthermore, the climate is a very complicated term, which can be defined separately for the whole world, country, or city using various measurements such as drought frequency, number of rainy days, and average temperatures in the selected region. As a result, the climate change process can be determined as alterations in the measures mentioned above considering centuries, decades, and years (as the least unit of measurement).
Additionally, global climate change has recently become one of the most significant problems for the modern world’s humanity. Moreover, the rapid progress, which occurred during the last decades, has greatly impacted the worldwide population’s minds about the importance of understanding of evidences, causes, processes, and negative results of the climate changes. Besides, all the people have to reconsider their opinions regarding this issue and also develop effective steps, which will help them to eliminate the problem. Finally, a great number of human beings should thoroughly investigate the roots of the problem, its current condition and threats, and create steps, which can be taken in order to get rid of climate change.
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As a result, the main goal of the following paper is to provide readers with the detailed information about climate change. It must be said that a plethora of human activities, such as fossil fuel burning, is closely connected with the process of global warming, which is one of the most important issues of climate change. Furthermore, the current consequences of climate change and its forecasted impacts on the world have to be described as well. Moreover, the paper provides a few examples of recent scientific developments, which will obviously help to reduce the climate change risks.
Meteorological Causes / Concepts
To start with, climate change is triggered by a wide variety of factors. Nevertheless, one of the most common causes of climate change, especially global warming, is “the greenhouse effect,” which happens because of atmosphere heating through the Earth-to-space radiation. In addition, a great number of scientific organizations has recently issued public statements, which accentuate that impact of climate change has increased lately because of human activities (“Scientific consensus: Earth’s climate is warming”, 2017). Moreover, there are different long-lived gases such as water vapor, which hang in atmosphere constantly and contribute to changes in temperature through blocking heat from escaping. These are the major gases, which create the greenhouse effect:
Water vapor is the main greenhouse gas, which increases the warm of atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an integral atmosphere’s part, which is produced by fossil fuel burning, changes of land use, deforestation, volcano eruptions, and respiration. Methane is created through sources such as cultivation of rice, agriculture, wastes in landfill decomposition, and domestic livestock. Nitrous oxide is emitted because of biomass burning, production of nitric acid, combustion of fossil fuel, organic fertilizers, and commercial use and practices of soil cultivation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are produced because of industrial activity, which production is now regulated by international agreement. Furthermore, the recent report of United Nations’ scientists stated that more than 95% of all the humanity’s activities have increased the warm of the Earth for the last 50 years (“A blanket around the Earth”, 2017). For example, various industrial activities increased the level of CO2 by 120 parts per million in the last 1.5 century. Additionally, the gases, which were produced by people’s activities, have increased the average Earth’s temperature in the previous 50 years.
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Although there are a lot of investigators, who say that the Sun contributes to the global warming, the measurements that have been made by satellite since 1970s showed that the output of the Sun has not increased (Cicerone & Nurse, 2014). However, the general temperature of the Earth has significantly risen for the last 40-50 years. Besides, there have been a great number of discussions amongst scientists whether the climate changes are caused by natural cycles or they cannot impact the climate in such enormous way. Nevertheless, it was proved that natural cycles influence climate because of slow change of Earth’s orbit around the Sun, which increases or decreases the quantities of solar energy received by the planet from the Sun (Riebeek, 2010). However, after the particles settle in the atmosphere within 2-5 years after these climate changes, its temperature always rebounds.
As a result, most of the significant changes of climate are caused by inappropriate and thoughtless activity of people. Furthermore, the most negative changes of climate have occurred since the Industrial Revolution. Moreover, although natural disasters influence the climate in general, they usually rebound all the made changes.
There are a lot of negative consequences of climate change, which can be observed in different sites of the world. Firstly, the rise of global temperature about 2.0 degrees Fahrenheit (1.1 degrees Celsius) has been recorded since the end of the 19th century (“Climate change: How do we know?”, 2017). Furthermore, the temperature has increased due to different human activities, which cause the rise of carbon dioxide. Moreover, all oceans have become warmer since the last half of the previous century. For instance, the top 700 meters of the oceans have had their temperature increased about 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit (“The consequences of climate change”, 2017). Unfortunately, a high percentage of ice sheets has decreased in mass in Greenland and Antarctic. The researches show that from 2002 to 2006 there were lost approximately 150-200 cubic kilometers of ice per year in Antarctic, and 152 cubic kilometers in 2002-2005 in Antarctica. Moreover, a lot of glaciers retreated in different parts of the world, and northern hemisphere’s spring snow cover has melted significantly for the last few years. The most unexpected fact is that global sea level rise for the last 20 years (8 inches) is twice bigger than for the last 100 years and the ocean’s upper layer consumes more than 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year (“Vital Signs”, 2017). In addition, there is a great number of natural disasters, which have happened since 1950, such as abnormal amount of rainfall.
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Moreover, growing and frost-free seasons will lengthen. This tendency appeared as far back as in 1980s. Unfortunately, there are a lot of projected impacts of climate change such as permanent growth of temperature (“The consequences of climate change”, 2017). Furthermore, patterns of precipitation on national level will increase in some parts of the world as well as decreased in others at the same time. Additionally, although now the clouds have a cooling effect on the Sun’s energy, in a warmer environment they will have a warming impact (Riebeek, 2010). Scientists also predict that heat waves and southwest droughts will become more frequent, intensities of hurricanes will increase, and the level of sea will rise.
Prospects / Results
It is obvious that all climate changes have very negative results, because they contribute to creation of abundance of various destructive effects, which can affect the whole humanity in the nearest future. However, the most prominent researchers of the 21st century have recently claimed that there are a few effective steps that should be made in order to escape the negative consequences of climate change at the global level.
Firstly, the humanity has to begin gradually reducing the consumption of energy in its three main sectors, namely transport, building and industry. For example, different industries have already applied solar batteries to their manufacturing processes (Houghton, 2011). Furthermore, carbon can be obtained underground through the use of fields of gas and oil or suitable formations of rocks. For instance, the rapid building of great number of coal plants in China and India has increased the percentage of CO2 in the atmosphere in the last few decades (Houghton, 2011).
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Secondly, people from all around the world can easily use natural sources of energy such as solar, hydro, wind, biomass, and wave powers instead of fossil fuel. For example, all developing societies could apply this method of receiving energy to top their manufacturing processes because they have much biomass. Moreover, it would contribute to faster migration of village inhabitants to larger cities and to maintenance of the rural communities. In addition, one more significant problem of the modern world is constant deforestation, the negative effect of which lies in the fact that forests decrease the level of carbon dioxide in the air. Thus, it is vital to stop the processes of deforestation in the nearest future uniting the forces of people all over the world.
Finally, it is needed to protect all societies from different parts of the world from the consequences of disasters caused by climate change. For instance, the repercussions of the future disasters should be thoroughly evaluated and modeled beforehand in order to estimate the costs of outcomes needed for fixing the loses (Warner, 2011). Moreover, it will forecast the location of the next disaster, and, as a result, all people will be able to escape the place, where it will happen.
To conclude, the most significant climate problem of the modern world and the whole society is global climate change. Furthermore, its consequences can be clearly seen in various parts of the Earth and are expressed through plethora of issues. Global warming is one of the most important problems, which are caused by climate change, and is shown through the permanent increase of the average temperature of the planet’s surface. Moreover, rising level of the global ocean, a great number of various natural disasters, constant melting of ice surface, and growing of carbon dioxide level in the air are other outcomes of climate change. Unfortunately, the projected impacts of the change of climate are increase of temperature and an abundance of gases in most parts of the world, to name a few.
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Additionally, a lot of manifestations of climate change are the results of human activities, such as water and air pollution. Moreover, researchers have recently proven that natural cataclysms and increase of the Sun’s temperature do not cause global climate change. Fortunately, there are a lot of steps which can be taken by the authorities of all countries and by people, who live anywhere in the world, which will improve the overall situation. They include, for instance, use of natural sources of energy and deceleration of deforestation process.
Therefore, all people should be aware of and concerned about the conditions of the current process of climate change. In fact, the consequences of the global climate change are destructive for the whole planet and all people, who live there. Thus, if the humanity takes the needed steps, it will save the planet and even itself from the destruction.