Annotated Bibliography: Sexual Abuse on Female Children
Cutajar, M. C., Mullen, P. E., Ogloff, J. R., Thomas, S. D., Wells, D. L., & Spataro, J. (2010). Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in a cohort of sexually abused children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(11), 1114-1119.
The authors of the research offer a comprehensive review of the psychotic disorders that can develop in sexually abused children. The study concentrates on female population and states that sexually abused children under the age of 16 have an ongoing contact with mental health services. These children have extremely high chances to develop psychotic and schizophrenic illnesses that can be defined as extremely dangerous mental health conditions. The danger can be explained by the fact that psychosis and schizophrenia lead to social isolation, drug abuse, depression, self-injury, and suicide.
Taking an analytical approach to the process of collecting information, the authors of the study allow to understand that there is a direct connection between sexual abuse and the process of development of psychotropic disorders in children. The information presented in the study illustrates the vulnerability of children because they are at the early stages of mental and psychological development. However, it is noted that the link between the processes of experiencing sexual abuse at the early age and the development of later psychotic disorders is not supported by evidence. This basically suggests a foundation for further research.
The information presented by the authors of the study can be used to support the accuracy of the research. It is connected with the fact that it covers the topic of the effects of sexual abuse on female children. Moreover, the wide availability of statistical data can allow to generate discussion on the topic and provide a comprehensive conclusion. Thus, the study can be defined as both informative and useful.
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Finkelhor, D. (2009). The prevention of childhood sexual abuse. The Future of Children, 19(2), 169-194.
David Finkelhor, professor of sociology and the author of the research, states that childhood sexual abuse is a considerable social problem that impacts not only the victims of abuse but the society as a whole. The increase in the rates of childhood sexual abuse has a close connection with the level of nations’ economic and social development. For this reason, Finkelhor considers the process of offering an effective solution for prevention of childhood sexual abuse to be the main priority of the modern American society.
In his research, the author offers two main strategies that are able to help to eliminate the threat, coming from sexual abuse. They include effective offender management and implementation of school-based educational programs that can allow children to be aware of the danger. Finkelhor states that the process of raising community awareness on the issue will help to protect the vulnerable population and transform the people’s way of thinking about the problem.
The Finkelhor’s work also discusses the importance of using law enforcement resources to protect victims of childhood sexual abuse. This fact basically means that the author considered the problem from different perspectives paying attention to its roots, consequences, and implications. Despite the fact that the research is not supported by comprehensive statistical data, it provides an overview of childhood sexual abuse from the perspectives of a social problem. This allows to increase the level of understanding of the problem in general and provide a foundation for the process of conducting further research on the topic. Therefore, the information presented by Finkelhor can be used as a supportive material for writing the research paper.
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Reza, A., Breiding, M. J., Gulaid, J., Mercy, J. A., Blanton, C., Mthethwa, Z., … & Anderson, M. (2009). Sexual violence and its health consequences for female children in Swaziland: A cluster survey study. The Lancet, 373(9679), 1966-1972.
According to the research published in The Lancet, the majority of victims of childhood sexual abuse are female children. The authors of the research state that sexual violence against girls is an important health and human rights problem that touches almost every country in the world no matter how developed it is. The majority of research studies state that the problem of childhood sexual abuse is associated with the level of economic and social development. However, the research of Reza et al. states that there is no direct connection between the level of development of a country and the rate of childhood sexual abuse.
According to statistical data of the study, the girls who live in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa have higher chances to become a victim of sexual abuse compared to developed countries such as the United States. This allows to better understand the difference in the nature of sexual violence. In the developed world, the main cause of childhood sexual abuse is psychological problems, while in developing countries, abuse is caused by the low level of social development.
The information presented in the study can be considered as extremely useful for conducting research on the topic of childhood sexual abuse because it offers a comprehensive review of the consequences the female children can face. The consequences discussed in the study include mental, reproductive, and physical health problems. The discussion of these problems is supported by statistical data, which can be defined as an important aspect required to generate further discussion on the topic of the effects of sexual abuse on female children.
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Maniglio, R. (2010). Child sexual abuse in the etiology of depression: A systematic review of reviews. Depression and Anxiety, 27(7), 631-642.
In his work, Maniglio states that depression and anxiety can be defined as two dangerous psychological problems for sexually abused children. This is connected with the fact that children are at the stage of development, and thus, they cannot manage stress suggested by sexual abuse effectively. The aim of the study is to illustrate the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and depression etiology. The work is supported by a comprehensive review of scientific evidence. This basically makes the information, presented in the research, highly reliable and accurate. Despite poor availability of academic literature on the topic, Maniglio provides a systematic review of the available data in order to make accurate conclusions.
In order to find the required literature, the author used the information presented by seven major databases and evaluated the eligibility of all the identified studies. As a result of these activities, the author managed to analyze 160 different studies with the information relevant to the research topic. The results of the study show that childhood sexual abuse has a significant psychological impact on victims and can be defined as the main risk factor in depression among female children. Maniglio also considers the long-term consequences of depression resulted from childhood sexual abuse and evaluates the risks of occurrence of suicidal behavior later in life.
The relevance and importance of the study conducted by Maniglio for the research paper can be explained by the uniqueness of the considered issues. Moreover, the fact that the study used 160 different sources makes it extremely relevant and reliable because it is a summary of all the available information on the topic of the relationship between depression and childhood sexual abuse. With the support of the information presented in the study, it is possible to consider the problem from different perspectives and prove that depression and anxiety can be at high levels in sexually abused children.
Schaeffer, P., Leventhal, J. M., & Asnes, A. G. (2011). Children’s disclosures of sexual abuse: Learning from direct inquiry. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35(5), 343-352.
In their work, Schaeffer, Leventhal, and Asnes discuss one of the most important problems associated with the process of abuse prevention, namely insufficient reporting of childhood sexual abuse. According to the authors, the majority of abused children do not feel confident both to talk about the problem with their parents and to look for support of law enforcement. There are two reasons for this. First of all, abused children feel ashamed, thus blaming themselves for what has happened. The second reason is that abusers are very often relatives of the abused children or friends of the relatives who intimidate the victims. The authors agree that there is a need for decisive large-scale actions required to solve the problem of childhood sexual abuse.
The method of collecting information used in research is interviewing. During one year, the authors interviewed 191 victims of sexual abuse aged from 3 to 18 years. This allowed to identify the reasons why some children showed the willingness to report abuse while others did not. According to the interview results, the majority of children disclosed the abuse because of experiencing extreme psychological pressure such as nightmares. When it comes to the barriers to disclosure, the majority of children noted that they received threats from the perpetrators.
It is possible to consider the source to be useful for writing the research paper because it provides the data collected directly from the victims. Moreover, it allows to understand the specific reasons why some children reported the abuse while others refused to do it. Thus, the well-researched and evidence-based information of the study of Schaeffer, Leventhal, and Asnes will allow to make accurate conclusions.